转基因饲料研究

转基因饲料研究

转基因饲料研究
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Proper experimental design is the 发现ation of any 科学出版物。但是,研究并非如此 easy to plan, particularly when it includes methods 那 是 expensive or 那 use tools 那 是 hard to find. To make things more complicated, many studies 是 performed as part of a Master’或博士学位论文,研究人员将在整个实验过程中获得技能和知识。到研究完成时,研究人员会发现她本应做的部分有所不同。

Studies 那 involve animals 是 especially 复杂,因为你不能“redo”失败的实验尽可能轻松 体外 or 在计算机上 分析。在同行评审过程中,很少可以解决审稿人和编辑的批评: 如果编辑或审稿人发现动物饲养研究中的缺陷,通常 由于资源限制,无法重做。

设计不良的GMO喂养研究比比皆是,这很可能是由于进行任何动物喂养研究中的这些困难。声称转基因生物很危险的人经常使用这种研究。可能难以确定研究是否已正确设计和执行。我们’我们整理了一份清单,以帮助您浏览GMO喂养研究的混乱世界。

评估转基因饲料研究

  1. 饲料分析
    • 必须分析给予对照动物和治疗动物的饲料营养成分,以确定除转基因特性外是否存在其他差异。如果饲料不是’为了尽可能相同,在治疗的动物和对照之间观察到的任何差异都不能仅归因于GM性状。
    • Many papers have shown 那 the environment has a strong impact on nutrient and mineral content in crops, so a failure to perform this analysis is a critical flaw in any GM feeding study. Anti-nutrient content, and toxin-producing fungi and bacteria must be analyzed as well.
    • 例如, the paper “转基因玉米和常规玉米对大鼠的比较作用”观察到饲喂转基因生物和对照组饮食的大鼠之间器官大小和其他参数的差异,但是,没有分析饲料,我们没有’不知道差异是否是由于转基因特性造成的。玉米的糖含量,蛋白质含量和其他营养成分具有自然变化,这可能导致观察到的差异,而不是 Bt 作者将观察到的差异归因于这种特征。
  2. 饲料来源
    • The feed 那 is provided to control and treated animals must be as similar as possible and should be isogenic. This means 那 the GM feed is the same variety as the control, with the exception of the introduction of the genetically engineered trait.
    • 一个经过精心设计的研究将使控制饲料和转基因饲料在同一田地和同一年生长,以最大程度地减少环境造成的变化。
    • 通常,不使用类似的饲料来源可能是致命的缺陷,例如在纸上“Bt 玉米(MON810:Ajeeb YG)对大鼠的喂养研究:生化分析和肝脏组织病理学“作者已经确定了转基因饲料中的营养差异,但没有描述提供给动物的饲料中营养成分的标准化,也没有提供有关作物生长方式,是否使用农药或其他重要因素的信息。因此,在对照大鼠和转基因饲料大鼠之间观察到的差异不能仅仅归因于饮食中的转基因蛋白。
  3. 控制项
    • The control and treated animals must be kept and treated in the exact same way, with the exception of the presence of the transgenic protein and gene in the feed. This ensures 那 any differences observed between the animals can be attributed exclusively to the feed, not the environment or the conditions under which the animals were kept.
    • 例如, the paper “用转基因饮食喂养大鼠的生物影响” identifies tissue changes in rats fed a diet of GM soy and corn, however the controls were fed a diet of wheat when they should have been fed a diet of non-GM soy and/or corn. 那里fore, the two groups were not treated equivalently.
  4. 统计
    • 在整个研究过程中应使用适当的统计检验。 例如,在论文中“三种转基因玉米品种对哺乳动物健康的影响比较“, the authors jump from one statistical test to another without explaining why a new statistical test is being used, suggesting 那 the authors may have been fishing for significance.
    • 设计良好的研究必须考虑 统计能力 在设计阶段。作者必须事先考虑他们将要测量的指标以及该值在健康受试者中的波动幅度,以确定他们在研究中需要多少只动物。 For example, 塞拉里尼’s study 检查转基因玉米的毒性和综述 was 发现 not to have a large enough sample 尺寸 得出相关结论。
  5. 关联
    • 那里’在任何物种中的自然变异。对于任何给定的特征’s a range for what’s considered “normal”。用于进食研究的小鼠和大鼠的类型差异较小,因为它们 近交,但在那里’大多数特征仍然存在差异。因此,对照组和接受转基因饲料的动物之间观察到的任何差异都必须 在物种自然变异的背景下进行解释。
    • Statistically significant differences 是 not necessarily biologically relevant. This point is intertwined with 统计能力. If you take two groups of animals and take enough measurements, you 是 bound to find a measurement 那 is different between the two groups. As such, it is important to address the question: is the measured difference biologically relevant?
    • 欧洲食品安全局定义 生物学相关性“an effect considered by expert judgement as important and meaningful for human, animal, plant or environmental health. It therefore implies a change 那 may alter how decisions for a specific problem 是 taken.” The EFSA also points out 那 the magnitude 检查生物学相关性时,必须考虑效果的影响。
    • 例如,本文“转基因Bt玉米在大鼠中的三代研究:生化和组织病理学研究” finds “最小的” differences between GE-fed and control animals in several measurements. The paper concludes 那 despite these minor differences, “在整个三代中长期食用转基因Bt玉米不会对大鼠造成严重的健康问题。”但是,本文的发现是 通常是脱离上下文作为伤害的例子.
  6. 重现性
    • If a study finds a difference between GM-fed and control animals, studies 那 repeat the experiment should observe the same difference. In contrast, if a similar study has been done in the past and didn’如果看不到观察到的差异,则作者应解决差异,并提出关于其结果为何不同的假设。
    • 例如, three different studies have examined the impact of Round-Up Ready Soy feed on goats and their kids. None of their conclusions 是 the same (see 这里, 这里这里 – note 那 one of these has been 已收回)。

什么时候 动物饲养研究有用吗?

Several years ago, the European Commission funded the 恩典 project (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence). 项目目标 将审查文献以寻找转基因作物的利弊证据,并确定最适合转基因生物风险评估的研究类型。他们最近的出版物调查了动物饲养研究是否有用。

与...对比 评论 that found 90-day feeding studies to be sufficient, the 恩典 project concluded 那 in most cases 90-day feeding studies do 不通过非动物测试提供任何其他信息。 “GRACE data support the scientific reasoning 那 only in case a trigger is available from the initial molecular, compositional, phenotypic and/or agronomic analyses, feeding trials with whole food/feed may provide an added scientific value for the risk assessment of GM crops. Thus, feeding trials might be considered, provided 那 the study design can be tailored to the posed safety concern.”

恩典’s conclusions 是 similar to the idea 那 most healthy people do not need to undergo regular medical testing. 什么时候 large numbers of people (or animals) 是 tested, some differences will be detected simply due to random chance –即使没有根本的担忧。为了避免出现误报的风险,必须首先考虑要触发其他测试。例如, doctors only 推荐 那 pregnant women undergo amniocentesis if there is some risk factor, such as concerning results from another test. Similarly, 恩典 推荐s 那 animal feeding studies 是 not necessary unless there is some risk factor, such as a compositional difference.

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